The erosion of galvanized pipes is the chief culprit in discharging Cadmium into the water supply. It is also introduced from the erosion of natural deposits, as well as discharge from metal refineries, and waste runoff from batteries and paints. Short-term exposure to cadmium in larger doses can result in vomiting, diarrhea, nausea, muscle cramps, sensory disturbances, convulsions, and renal failure. Long-term consumption has been linked to blood diseases, and kidney, liver and bone damage.

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